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HealthCenter21: A&P - Skeletal System

This module presents an in-depth look at the human skeletal system. This module includes core and extended units. 

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AP skeletal

In the core units, students learn about the function and structure of the skeletal system, its relationship with other body systems, and how factors impact skeletal system health. Students discover the role of calcium homeostasis, identify classification of bones and articulations, and review directional terms from the Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology module. Students also learn about diseases and disorders of the skeletal system.

The extended units include a deeper exploration of bone anatomy and specific regions of the skeleton. Extended units have comprehensive information on articulations, bone markings, and bone growth and remodeling.

The skeletal system module is designed according to the AES course framework, which includes four phases:

  1. Explore
  2. Learn & Practice
  3. Reflect
  4. Reinforce

Below you'll discover how AES can help you teach your students about the skeletal system according to these four phases.


Phase 1: Explore

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Trivia Questions

This trivia challenge includes a mix of interesting and challenging facts about the skeletal system to kickstart student learning. This activity can be done individually or in teams as a game.


Phase 2: Learn & Practice

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Unit 1: Introduction (Core)

In this unit, students identify bones of the skeletal system and explain the functions of the system. Students are introduced to the relationships between the skeletal system and other body systems while reviewing directional terms from the Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology module. Students also learn how to maintain healthy bones and the importance of homeostasis.

 

Unit 2: Bones and the Skeletal System (Core)

In this unit, students identify the composition of bones and explain the classification of bones by shape. Students describe the divisions of the skeletal system and define bones of the axial and appendicular skeleton while explaining the different ways to classify articulations.

 

Unit 3: Bone Anatomy (Extended)

In this unit, students define gross anatomy and the structures of long, short, flat, and irregular bones. The primary types of bone cells and their functions are introduced along with the origins of bone cells. Students take a deeper look at the types of bone tissue, focusing on comparing and contrasting compact and spongy bone. They also learn about subchondral bone tissue and the organization of woven and lamellar bone.

 

Unit 4: Axial Skeleton (Extended)

In this unit, students focus on the subdivisions of the skull, the vertebral column, and thoracic cage. Students learn about the subdivisions and suture lines of the skull and identify the cranial and facial bones. The hyoid and auditory ossicle bones are included in this unit. Students also learn about the structure and function of the vertebral column and thoracic cage.

 

Unit 5: Appendicular Skeleton (Extended)

In this unit, students learn about the girdles and extremities of the skeletal system. The focus is on the subdivisions of the appendicular skeleton, the pectoral and pelvic girdles, and the bones in the upper and lower extremities.

 

Unit 6: Articulations (Extended)

In this unit, students learn about articulations and the structural and functional classifications of joints. They are introduced to types of joints, including fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial. Students define different types of body movement and provide examples. They also examine the bone structures that form each type of synovial joint and explain how these structures work with muscles and tendons.

 

Unit 7: Bone Markings (Extended)

In this unit, students explore groupings of bone markings, specific types of projections, depressions, articulations, and opening bone markings.

 

Unit 8: Bone Growth and Remodeling (Extended)

In this unit, students explore how bones form and grow. The unit starts with fetal bone formation and infant skull development and moves to bone growth during adulthood. Students also learn about hematopoiesis across the lifespan. Specifics on the phases of bone remodeling and bone repair after a fracture are introduced.

 

Unit 9: Diseases and Disorders (Core)

In this unit, students learn about some diseases and disorders of the skeletal system, including their symptoms, causes, and treatments.

 


Phase 3: Reflect

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Questions and Discussion

This activity provides an opportunity for students to reflect upon and apply what they learned to situations in their lives and health-related settings. The questions encourage students to consider what they learned about the skeletal system and how it connects to other systems.

Students can complete this assignment as homework or teachers can use the questions to lead a class discussion.

 


Phase 4: Reinforce

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Crossword Puzzle

For this activity, students complete a crossword puzzle about the skeletal system to reinforce the glossary words and medical terminology. Students can work individually or in small groups to complete the puzzle.

Advanced Treatment Research Project

Students research an advanced treatment for a disease or disorder related to the skeletal system to better understand medical procedures beyond the typical treatments. Students are encouraged to explore current, innovative, cutting-edge, non-traditional, and other treatment options as part of this project.

Students can work individually or in small groups to create a research paper or presentation.

Careers Research

In this project, students research three healthcare careers related to the skeletal system. This activity is an opportunity to apply what they learned in the lessons to career opportunities.

This activity can be completed as homework, as in-class work, or as a presentation.

Diseases and Disorders Research

Students research a disease or disorder related to skeletal system in greater detail than presented in the module. Students explain the etiology, pathology, presentation, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and potential disease prevention. This activity can be completed as homework, as in-class work, or as a presentation.

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